The efficacy of GMT for improving function across a variety of patient populations has been assessed by leading research groups for over 20 years. There are currently several large scale trials assessing the effectiveness of GMT, funded by national and local agencies across the globe.

Published Research on GMT

There are over 60 publications concerning the effectiveness of GMT for improving executive functioning in aging, traumatic brain injury, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, stroke, PTSD, affective disorders, ADHD, abstinent polysubstance abuse, and post-critical care patients, among other conditions.

A meta-analytic review of published, peer-reviewed studies through 2017 supported the effectiveness of GMT as measured by objective (neuropsychological tests, measures of brain function such as functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) and subjective (self- and other-ratings) measures of executive functioning (Stamenova & Levine, 2018)*.
This bibliography includes research studies that have used GMT, modified GMT, or GMT principles in interventional research in various groups, as well as review papers summarizing the executive functioning rehabilitation literature (including GMT). 
GOal Management Training


Traumatic Brain Injury
Novakovic-Agopian, T., Posecion, L., Kornblith, E. S., Abrams, G., McQuaid, J. R., Neylan, T. C., Burciaga, J., Joseph, J., Carlin, G., Groberio, J., Maruyama, B., Chen A. J. W. (2020). Goal-Oriented Attention Self-Regulation Training Improves Executive Functioning in Veterans with PTSD and Mild TBI. Journal of Neurotrauma. doi: 10.1089/neu.2019.6806.

​Staba, U. C., Vrhovac, S., Lesnik, V. M., & Novakovic-Agopian, T. (2020). Goal-oriented attentional self-regulation training in individuals with acquired brain injury in a subacute phase: a pilot feasibility study. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 43(1), 28-36. doi: 10.1097/MRR.0000000000000380.

Novakovic-Agopian, T., Kornblith, E., Abrams, G., McQuaid, J. R., Posecion, L., Burciaga, J., ... & Chen, A. J. (2019). Long-term effects of executive function training among veterans with chronic TBI. Brain Injury, 33(12), 1513-1521.doi: 10.1080/02699052.2019.1645357

Harvey, M. M., Petersen, T. J., Sager, J. C., Makhija-Graham, N. J., Wright, E. C., Clark, E. L., ... & Lento, R. M. (2019). An intensive outpatient program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 26(2), 323-334.doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2018.07.003

Elbogen, E.B., Dennis, P.A., Van Voorhees, E.E., Blakey, S.M., Johnson, J.L., Johnson, S.C., Wagner, H.R., Hamer, R.M., Beckham, .C., Manly, T., & Belger, A. (2019). Cognitive rehabilitation with mobile technology and social support for veterans with TBI and PTSD: A randomized clinical trial. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 34(1): 1-10. doi: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000435h

Hypher, R., Brandt, A.E., Risnes, K.,  Rø, T.B., Andersson, S., Finnanger, T.G., & Stubberud, J. (2019). Paediatric Goal Management Training in patients with acquired brain injury: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal Open. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2019-029273

Tornås, S., Løvstad, M., Solbakk, A-K., Schanke, A-K., & Stubberud, J. (2019). Use it or lose it? A 5-year follow-up study of Goal Management Training in patients with acquired brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1017/S1355617719000626

Kornblith, E., Abrams, G., Chen, A. J. W., Burciaga, J., D’Esposito, M., & Novakovic-Agopian, T. (2018). Impact of baseline neurocognitive functioning on outcomes following rehabilitation of executive function training for veterans with history of traumatic brain injury. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult 27(2), 108-120. doi: 10.1080/23279095.2018.1490738

Emmanouel, A., Kontrafouri, E., Nikolaos, P., Kessels, R. P., & Fasotti, L. (2018). Incorporation of a working memory strategy in GMT to facilitate serial-order behaviour in brain-injured patients. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 30(5), 889-914. doi: 10.1080/09602011.2018.1517369

Novakovic-Agopian, T., Kornblith, E. S., Abrams, G., Burciaga-Rosales, J., Loya, F., D'Esposito, M., & Chen, A. J. W. (2018). Training in Goal-Oriented Attentional Self-Regulation Improves Executive Functioning in Veterans with Chronic TBI. Journal of Neurotrauma. doi: 10.1089/neu.2017.5529.

Gracey, F., Fish, J. E., Greenfield, E., Bateman, A., Malley, D., Hardy, G., ... & Manly, T. (2017). A randomized controlled trial of assisted intention monitoring for the rehabilitation of executive impairments following acquired brain injury. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 31(4), 323-333. doi: 10.1177/1545968316680484

Loya F, Novakovic-Agopian T, Binder D, Rossi A, Rome S, Murphy M, Chen AJ. (2017). Long-Term Use and Perceived Benefits of Goal-Oriented Attentional Self-Regulation Training in Chronic Brain Injury. Rehabilitation Research and Practice, 2017:8379347. doi: 10.1155/2017/8379347

Stubberud, J., Edvardsen, E., Schanke, A-K., Lerdal, A., Kjeverud, A., Schillinger, A., & Løvstad, M. (2017). Description of a multifaceted intervention program for fatigue after acquired brain injury: a pilot study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/09602011.2017.1344132.

​Tornås, S., Stubberud, J., Solbakk, A-K., Evans, J., Schanke, A-K., & Løvstad, M. (2017). Moderators, mediators, and nonspecific predictors of outcome after cognitive rehabilitation of executive functions in a randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/09602011.2017.1338587

Bertens, D., Kessels, R. P. C., Boelen, D. H. E., & Fasotti, L. (2016). Transfer effects of errorless Goal Management Training on cognitive function and quality of life in brain-injured persons. NeuroRehabilitation, 38(1), 79-84. doi:10.3233/NRE-151298

Cuberos-Urbano, G., Caracuel, A., Valls-Serrano, C., García-Mochón, L., Gracey, F., & Verdejo-García, A. (2016). A pilot investigation of the potential for incorporating lifelog technology into executive function rehabilitation for enhanced transfer of self-regulation skills to everyday life. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 1-13. doi:10.1080/09602011.2016.1187630

Tornås, S., Løvstad, M., Solbakk, A. K., Schanke, A. K., & Stubberud, J. (2016). Goal Management Training Combined With External Cuing as a Means to Improve Emotional Regulation, Psychological Functioning, and Quality of Life in Patients With Acquired Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 97(11), 1841-1852. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2016.06.014

Tornås, S., Lovstad, M., Solbakk, A. K., Evans, J., Endestad, T., Hol, P. K., . . . Stubberud, J. (2016). Rehabilitation of Executive Functions in Patients with Chronic Acquired Brain Injury with Goal Management Training, External Cuing, and Emotional Regulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 22(4), 436-452. doi:10.1017/S1355617715001344

Arnemann KL, Chen AJ, Novakovic-Agopian T, Gratton C, Nomura EM, et al. (2015) Functional brain network modularity predicts response to cognitive training after brain injury. Neurology.

Archer, K. R., Coronado, R. A., Haislip, L. R., Abraham, C. M., Vanston, S. W., Lazaro, A. E., . . . Obremskey, W. T. (2015). Telephone-based goal management training for adults with mild traumatic brain injury: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 16 (1).

Bertens D, Fasotti L, Boelen DH, Kessels RP (2015) Moderators, Mediators, and Nonspecific Predictors of Treatment Outcome in an Intervention for Everyday Task Improvement in Persons With Executive Deficits After Brain Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil.

Bertens D, Kessels RP, Fiorenzato E, Boelen DH, Fasotti L (2015) Do Old Errors Always Lead to New Truths? A Randomized Controlled Trial of Errorless Goal Management Training in Brain-Injured Patients. J Int Neuropsychol Soc: 1-11.

Krasny-Pacini A, Limond J, Evans J, Hiebel J, Bendjelida K, et al. (2014) Context-sensitive goal management training for everyday executive dysfunction in children after severe traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 29: E49-64.

Waid-Ebbs JK, Bcba D, Daly J, Wu SS, Berg WK, et al. (2014) Response to Goal Management Training in Veterans with blast-related mild traumatic brain injury. J Rehabil Res Dev 51: 1555-1566.

Bertens D, Fasotti L, Boelen DH, Kessels RP (2013) A randomized controlled trial on errorless learning in goal management training: study rationale and protocol. BMC Neurol 13: 64.

Grant M, Ponsford J, Bennett PC (2012) The application of Goal Management Training to aspects of financial management in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychol Rehabil 22: 852-873.

Chen AJ, Novakovic-Agopian T, Nycum TJ, Song S, Turner GR, et al. (2011) Training of goal-directed attention regulation enhances control over neural processing for individuals with brain injury. Brain 134: 1541-1554.

Novakovic-Agopian T, Chen AJW, Rome S, Abrams G, Castelli H, et al. (2011) Rehabilitation of executive functioning with training in attention regulation applied to individually defined goals: A pilot study bridging theory, assessment, and treatment. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 26: 325-338.

Spikman JM, Boelen DH, Lamberts KF, Brouwer WH, Fasotti L (2010) Effects of a multifaceted treatment program for executive dysfunction after acquired brain injury on indications of executive functioning in daily life. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 16: 118-129.

McPherson KM, Kayes N, Weatherall M (2009) A pilot study of self-regulation informed goal setting in people with traumatic brain injury. Clin Rehabil 23: 296-309.

Miotto EC, Evans JJ, Souza De Lucia MC, Scaff M (2009) Rehabilitation of executive dysfunction: A controlled trial of an attention and problem solving treatment group. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 19: 517-540.

Fish J, Evans JJ, Nimmo M, Martin E, Kersel D, et al. (2007) Rehabilitation of executive dysfunction following brain injury: "content-free" cueing improves everyday prospective memory performance. Neuropsychologia 45: 1318-1330.

Levine B, Robertson IH, Clare L, Carter G, Hong J, et al. (2000) Rehabilitation of executive functioning: an experimental-clinical validation of goal management training. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 6: 299-312.

Pachalska M, Talar J, Baranowski P, Macqueen BD (2000) The rehabilitation of executive functions in patients with closed-head injuries. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2: 77-87.
Other Studies
Cameron, D. H., McCabe, R. E., Rowa, K., O'Connor, C., McKinnon, M. C. (2020). A pilot study examining the use of Goal Management Training in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Pilot Feasibility Studies, 6, 151. doi: 10.1186/s40814-020-00684-0

Hagen, B. I., Lau, B., Joormann, J., Småstuen, M. C., Landrø, N. I., & Stubberud, J. (2020). Goal Management Training as a cognitive remediation intervention in depression: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 275, 268-277. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.015

​Vlagsma, T. T., Duits, A. A., Dijkstra, H. T., van Laar, T., & Spikman, J. M. (2020). Effectiveness of ReSET; a strategic executive treatment for executive dysfunctioning in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 30(1), 67-84. doi: 10.1080/09602011.2018.1452761

Boyd, J. E., O’Connor, C., Protopopescu, A., Jetly, R., Rhind, S. G., Lanius, R. A., & McKinnon, M. C. (2019). An open-label feasibility trial examining the effectiveness of a cognitive training program, Goal Management Training, in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder. Chronic Stress, 3, 1-13. doi: 10.1177/2470547019841599

Richard NM, Bernstein LJ, Mason WP, Laperriere N, Maurice C, Millar BA, Shultz DB, Berlin A, Edelstein K. (2019). Cognitive rehabilitation for executive dysfunction in brain tumor patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, 142(3):565-575. doi: 10.1007/s11060-019-03130-1

Rantanen, K., Vierikko, E., & Nieminen, P. (2018). Effects of the EXAT neuropsychological multilevel intervention on behavior problems in children with executive function deficits. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 59(5), 483-495. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12468

Baylan, S., & Evans, J. (2016). Development of a paradigm for studying the effects of brief Goal Management Training with Implementation Intentions. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 1-17. doi:10.1080/09602011.2016.1256326

Levaux MN, Laroi F, Malmedier M, Offerlin-Meyer I, Danion JM, et al. (2012) Rehabilitation of executive functions in a real-life setting: goal management training applied to a person with schizophrenia. Case Rep Psychiatry 2012: 503023.

Metzler-Baddeley C, Jones RW (2010) Brief communication: cognitive rehabilitation of executive functioning in a case of craniopharyngioma. Appl Neuropsychol 17: 299-304.

Schweizer TA, Levine B, Rewilak D, O'Connor C, Turner G, et al. (2008) Rehabilitation of executive functioning after focal damage to the cerebellum. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 22: 72-77.
Chen, A., Novakovic-Agopian, T., & Loya, F. (2020). Interventions to Improve Cognitive Functioning After Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). In Traumatic Brain Injury, 329-376. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-87887-4_15

Cicerone, K. D., Goldin, Y., Ganci, K., Rosenbaum, A., Wethe, J. V., Langenbahn, D. M., Malec, J. F., Bergquist, T. F., Kingsley, K., Nagele, D., Trexler, L., Fraas, M., Bogdanova, Y., Harley, J. P. (2019). Evidence-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation: Systematic Review of the Literature From 2009 Through 2014. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 100(8):1515-1533. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2019.02.011

Verdejo-Garcia, A., Garcia-Fernandez, G., & Dom, G. (2019). Cognition and addiction. Dialogues Clin Neurosci, 21(3): 281-290. doi: 10.31887/DCNS.2019.21.3/gdom

Raskin, S. A. (2019). Current approaches to cognitive rehabilitation. Handbook of Medical Neuropsychology, 731-748. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1364-7

Chen, A. J. W., & Loya, F. (2019). Strengthening goal-directed functioning after traumatic brain injury. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 163, 435-456. doi: 10.1016/b978-0-12-804281-6.00023-9

Raskin, S.A., Williams, J., & Aiken, E.M. (2018). A review of prospective memory in individuals with acquired brain injury. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 32(5): 891-921. doi: 10.1080/13854046.2018.1455898

Verdejo-Garcia, A., Chong, T.T.-J., Stout, J.C., Yücel, M., & London, E.D. (2018). Stages of dysfunctional decision-making in addiction. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour, 164, 99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2017.02.003

Stamenova, V., & Levine, B. (2018). Effectiveness of goal management training® in improving executive functions: A meta-analysis. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 1-31.

Mahan, S., Rous, R., & Adlam, A. (2017). Systematic review of neuropsychological rehabilitation for prospective memory deficits as a consequence of acquired brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 23(3), 254-265.doi: 10.1017/S1355617716001065

Krasny-Pacini A, Chevignard M, Evans J (2014) Goal Management Training for rehabilitation of executive functions: a systematic review of effectiveness in patients with acquired brain injury. Disabil Rehabil 36: 105-116.

Cicerone, K. D., Langenbahn, D. M., Braden, C., Malec, J. F., Kalmar, K., Fraas, M., Felicetti, T., Laatsch, L., Harley, J. P., Bergquist, T., Azulay, J., Cantor, J., Ashman, T. (2011). Evidence-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation: Updated Review of the Literature From 2003 Through 2008. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92(4):519-30. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2010.11.015

Cicerone, K. D., Dahlberg, C., Malec, J. F., Langenbahn, D. M., Felicetti, T., Kneipp, S., Ellmo, W., Kalmar, K., Giacino, J. T., Harley, J. P., Laatsch, L., Morse, P. A., Catanese, J. (2005). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86(8):1681-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.apmr.2005.03.024